FEZ group, Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, Norway
Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sweden
Chemistry and biochemistry, Islamia College University Peshawar, Pakistan
Isolation, Characterization and Bioassays of Phaeolus Mushroom Polysaccharides
Syed Lal Badshah, Anila Riaz, Noreen Noreen, Akhtar Muhammad
The mushroom are one of the important natural product that have a number of bioactive compounds. The polysaccharides and conjugate of polyscachro-peptides from mushrooms have immune modulatory and anticancer. The mushrooms are mostly seasonal and grow in specific environmental conditions on dead organic matter. Here in this study an important mushroom of the family basidiomycetes, Phaeolus schweinitzii, generally called velvet-top fungus was chosen for extraction of polysaccharides. The extracted polysaccharides were partially characterized using Fourier Transform infrared and nuclear magnetic spectroscopy and XRD technique. The extracted free and protein bound polysaccharides possess anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyryl cholinesterase activities. These carbohydrates showed antioxidant properties and thus can be used in anticancer activities. Based on the bioactivities it can be said that these polysaccharides can be used for the treatment of neurological diseases. In the near future, the in-vivo experiments will help in understanding the biochemical properties of these polysaccharo-peptides.
Lithuanian Fund for Nature, Lithuania
Plant pathology, Mycology and phycology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Pro Natura, Sweden / UK
Veteranisation – create decaying wood habitats in trees – does it work for biodiversity?
Not everyone subscribes to the idea of damaging young trees for nature conservation gain, and this technique is known as veteranisation. There are however many sites across Europe with few ancient trees and a large age gap between the existing old trees and their successors, which means time is not on our side. Most of the inspiration for the techniques that have been used in recent years has come from observing natural processes. This presentation will describe what veteranisation is, why it is worth doing, where it may be appropriate, benefits for biodiversity associated with old trees and some different techniques. In addition some of the early results from an international trial (Sweden, Norway and England) that was set up in 2012 with 20 sites and 980 oak trees, to evaluate the impact of veteranisation on a more scientific basis will be presented (Bengtsson et al, 2015, Hedin, Niklasson, Bengtsson, 2018; Bengtsson &Wheater, 2021).
Fungal Ecology, School of Bioscience, Cardiff University United Kingdom
Getting to the heart of the matter: decay of veteran trees
As trees age the central tissues in their trunks/boles cease to be functional in the movement of water from the roots to the leaves, and theses tissues are then called heartwood, and often contain polyphenols and other extractives that are inhibitory to fungi. Nonetheless, heartwood is easier for fungi to colonise than functional sapwood, and decay starts while the tree is still standing. Decay is a good thing, indeed it is essential, because it releases nutrients locked up in dead tissues, making them available again for use by trees. Moreover, this decaying wood provides habitat for thousands of species of invertebrates, birds and other mammals. This includes habitat for endangered species. I will first review heart-rot in general and then describe our recent findings with beech (Fagus sylvatica) and oak (Quercus robur) trees. Finally, I will also mention our programme for veteranising trees by inoculating with appropriate heart-rot fungi.
Department of mycology, M. G. Kholodny Institute of botany, NAS of Ukraine, Ukraine
Centre for Microbial Ecology and Genomics, Biochemistry, Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pretoria South Africa
Department of Botany, University of Tartu, Faculty of Science and Technology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Estonia
Conservation Team – Epping Forest, Environment Dept – Epping Forest, City of London Corporation, UK
Oda Sofie Dahle
Sweco, Trondheim, Norway
Conservation, North York Moors National Parkm, United Kingdom
Thomas Edison dela Cruz
Fungal Biodiversity, Ecogenomics and Systematics Group, Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences, University of Santo Tomas, Philippines
Mycology and Forest ecology & management, Biology INBO (institute for nature and forest research) and Ghent University, Belgium
Decay on the Beech
A quick and dirty introduction to my doctoral research project (start November 2020) that focuses on fungal communities in decaying Fagus sylvatica wood. We aim to combine datasets from the NATMAN project (2001) with resurveys, incorporating extensive existing datasets on dead wood properties, chemical wood composition and ectomycorrhizal fungi. We will search for potential fungal community shifts in old-growth beech forest in Belgium, Denmark and (probably) Slovenia. The fruitbody surveys on course woody debris will be expanded to include fine woody debris and supplemented with results from environmental sequencing. In this context, additional focus will be given to ectomycorrhizal fungi occurring in the late decay stages of the dead wood. With the help of my Promotors Mieke Verbeken (Ghent university) and Kris Vandekerkhove (INBO).
Ecology/Mycology, Biosciences, Swansea University, Wales, UK
Plant-insect-microbe interactions, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Sweden
Mukhrino field station and dead wood research in taiga zone of West Siberia
Mukhrino field station located in vicinity of Khanty-Mansiysk, Western Siberia and invites biodiversity studies with the special love for raised bogs ecosystems. Since about 2010 we also develop a Biological collection of YSU, with Fungarium YSU having about 8000 specimens. About a fourth part of this collection collected from “wood” substrate as the database reports. The mycologists paid quite attention to the dead wood inventories in the region, but studies with complex approach are rare. All previous literature-based occurrences of fungi in this region have been digitized in the corresponding database. We initiated the study of lignicolous community of fungi in raised bogs. This research was started several years ago using classical method of direct observation of fruitbodies. In 2021-2023 it will be continued using metabarcoding approach to study how fungal community responds to special conditions of raised bogs.
Tohoku University, Japan
Invertebrate Assemblages on Biscogniauxia Sporocarps on Oak Dead Wood: An Observation Aided by Squirrels
Dead wood is an important habitat for both fungi and insects. Unlike the myriad of studies on fungus–insect relationships, insect communities on ascomycete sporocarps are less explored, particularly for those in hidden habitats such as underneath bark. Here, I present my observations of insect community dynamics on Biscogniauxia spp. on oak dead wood from the early anamorphic stage to matured teleomorph stage, aided by the debarking behaviour of squirrels. In total, 38 insect taxa were observed on Biscogniauxia spp. from March to November. The community composition was significantly correlated with the presence/absence of Biscogniauxia spp. Additionally, Librodor (Glischrochilus) ipsoides, Laemophloeus submonilis, and Neuroctenus castaneus were frequently recorded and closely associated with Biscogniauxia spp. along its change from anamorph to teleomorph. These results suggest that sporocarps of Biscogniauxia spp. are important to these insect taxa, depending on their developmental stage.
Woodland Trust, Wales, United Kingdom
Lithuanian Fund for Nature, Lithuania
Life Sciences Center, Vilnius university, Lithuania
Bibionomorpha and Tipulomorpha in dead wood in Lithuania
The aim of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of nematoceran flies (infraorder Bibionomorpha) associated with dead wood in a forest ecosystem, as no effort has previously been made to study saproxylic flies in Lithuania. During this research, emergence traps were used on aspen (Populus tremula), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), oak (Quercus robur) and linden (Tilia cordata) tree species during the period 2014–2019. In total, 804 individuals and 114 species were collected from tree trunk, with Sciaridae, Anisopodidae and Mycetophilidae families being most abundant.
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Warsaw, Poland
Białowieża Primeval Forest – finally safe or again in danger?
Białowieża Primeval Forest is the best preserved lowland nemoral forest in the Europe. It is protected as UNESCO World Heritage Site as well as various forms of conservation on both Belarusian and Polish side. However unique ecosystem of this forest is never fully safe from human influence. In 2017 Polish part of Białowieża Primeval Forest suffered from intensified logging, which was response of forest managers to European spruce bark beetle outbreak. This triggered huge protests of conservationist, activists and scientists which eventually led to stopping the logging. Today, four years after, effect of such human induced disturbance can be evaluated, and available research on that will be shortly summarised. I will also shortly discuss the possible future of the conservation of Polish part of Białowieża Forest.
Joint stock company “Latvijas Valsts Meži”, Latvia
Biodiversity in Forests Group, Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, UK
Kasper Grønbech Andersen
University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Dr Talya Hackett is currently working at the University of Oxford as part of the Target Malaria research consortium coordinating research on the ecological consequences of supressing populations of the key malaria-transmitting mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. She is a community ecologist using empirical ecological network analysis to answer applied questions about how species interactions are structured across the landscape and how perturbations spread between habitats and guilds. Her keynote on 29 October 2021 will focus on ecological networks and how interaction data can be used to answer a range of exciting ecological questions. She will cover data collection, visualization and some of the metrics used to describe a community, as well as the power of network analysis as a predictive tool. Learn more about Talya through her university webpage and follow Talya @Landscape_Webs in Twitter
Natural England, England, UK
Biodiversity centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Finland
Jacob Heilmann-Clausen, PhD is based at Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, GLOBE institute, University of Copenhagen in Denmark. His dead wood interests rotate around: fungal biodiversity, community ecology, habitat specialization, veteranization and conservation. He has studied fungal communities on beech logs from Sweden to Italy and from Spain to Iran, and is teaching courses on field mycology and forest conservation at the University of Copenhagen. In the Dead Wood Meeting on 28th October, his keynote will provide highlights from 20 years of research on fungal communities on beech logs. Learn more about Jacob through his Homepage Link, https://globe.ku.dk/research/cmec/heilmann-clausen-group
Restoration ecology group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Environmental Biotechnology, International Institute Zittau (IHI Zittau), Technical University Dresden (TU Dresden), Germany
Physiology and Biochemistry of Woodand Lignin Degradation by Fungi
As universal decomposers and equipped with versatile enzymes, members of the fungal kingdom are found in all terrestrial ecosystem. They colonize deadwood, leaf-litter, soil and dung. In these habitats, fungi make up a large portion of biomass and play an important role in the recycling of carbon, particularly of persistent plant polymers. The disintegration and mineralization of lignin is their most notable degradative activity. Lignin is a major component of plant biomass providing strength and protecting polysaccharides from microbial attack (“lignin barrier”). As complex aromatic polymer, it cannot be cleaved by conventional hydrolytic enzymes. In the course of evolution, merely certain Basidiomycota succeeded in developing biochemical mechanisms for substantial lignin degradation. To this end, they secrete peroxidases that break down the lignin polymer by radical formation. Manganese peroxidases are thought to play a key role in this process, as they initiate degradation via small diffusible Mn(III) chelates.
Jean Baptiste Ingold
Forest Science, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan
Rannveig M. Jacobsen
Dr. Rannveig M. Jacobsen currently works as a researcher at the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, and as an associate professor at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences, where she teaches advanced entomology. She describes herself as a forest ecologist, and her main interest is insect-fungus interactions in dead wood and how this affects community composition and decomposition. Her keynote will focus on this topic, aiming to provide both an overview of this broad and exciting topic, and some in-depth examples from her own work. More information about Rannveig can be found through employee info at NINA. For Norwegian readers, she also has several contributions to the insect ecology blog Insektøkologene – En forskerblogg om insektenes fantastiske verden (nmbu.no).
Norsciid, Nordic Sciaroidea Identification, a visiting researcher in the Zoological Museum of Helsinki University, Finland
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Poland
Municipal Greenery Management in Warsaw, Poland
Swedish Species Information Centre, Swedish Agricultural University, Sweden
Department of Algology and Mycology, University of Lodz, Poland
Conservation and protection, Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
Diversity of saproxylic flies (Brachycera) in the Hyrcanian forests, Iran
Farzaneh Kazerani1*, Mohammad Ebrahim Farashiani1 and Simon Thorn2
- Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
- Field Station Fabrikschleichach, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, Biocenter, University of Würzburg, Glashüttenstraße 5, 96181 Rauhenebrach, Germany
Forest management can significantly reduce the amount and diversity of dead wood, as well as of biodiversity associated with them. Hyrcanian forests of Iran are one of the most important and most valuable ecosystems which is host of a lot of endemic species. We surveyed saproxylic flies in 30 managed and unmanaged plots across the entire Hyrcanian forest between 2017 and 2019 with pan traps. Overall, we collected 71 species belonging to 22 families. Forest management resulted in decreasing abundance and species richness. Chloromyia speciosa (Macquart, 1834), Sargus cuprarius (Linnaeus, 1758), Pherbellia jalili Mortelmans and Kazerani, 2020, Dolichocephala sp. and Bibio sp. were bioindicators for unmanaged plots. Indicator species suggest that changes in the biodiversity of saproxylic flies where primarily linked to the management-caused loss of old-growth attributes, such as large decaying logs and fruiting bodies of wood-inhabiting fungi. Endemic species as well as rare families of saproxylic flies illustrate the importance of conserving unmanaged parts in the Hyrcanian forest.
Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation
Laboratory of Computational Ecology, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology of RAS – branch of the M.V. Keldysh IAM RAS, Russia
Deadwood 15 years after a catastrophic windthrow event in a Quercus mesic deciduous forest: decay rates, elements dynamics, soil characteristics, and fungi diversity.
The study is conducted in the Kaluzhskie Zaseki Nature Reserve (53.56°N, 35.69°E) where catastrophic windthrow occurred in 2006 on a total area of 285 ha (291 patches from 0.04 to 51 ha). There is a lucky combination of three factors, each of which is itself a rarity in European forests: (i) natural forest conditions in a strictly protected area without any impact, (ii) trunks of 8 tree species fell; (iii) 15 years have passed since this event. During field studies performed in 2020 and 2021, we could find fragments of fallen logs at all decay stages for each species. We collected 200 woody samples from 50 fallen logs and defined decay rates, CN and other elements dynamics, soil characteristics under and near the logs. A total of 73 species of basidial macrofungi were identified from fruit bodies: 2 red-listed species for the region, 11 for European Russia and 1 for IUCN.
Forest Phytopathology and Mycology, LSFRI Silava, Latvia
Norway spruce wood fungal community in 20-41 years-old spruce dominant stands in Latvia
We investigated the wood fungal community composition in living trees of 21 to 40 years-old Norway spruce-dominated stands in Latvia. The stands differed in management history and former land use. We applied molecular tools (fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) amplicon sequencing using Illumina 2 MiSeq technology) to assess wood fungal community in those stands. Among sequences, dominant genera were Heterobasidion, Ascocoryne, Sistotrema, Mycena, Ophiostoma and Orbilia. Both former land use and stand management had an impact on fungal community composition. Forest thinning largely explained the differences in abundance of dominant genera. Dominant wood pathogen genera were largely the same among the analysed groups while its abundance varied. Funding: ERDF Post-doctoral Research project No. 188.8.131.52/VIAA/2/18/298.
Biological faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Mycology & algology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russian Federation
Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland
Urban forests as potential dead-wood refugia – perspectives from the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland
In northern European cities and their surroundings, forests have often been retained as recreational areas for urban residents. In the absence of intensive management, urban forests provide opportunities for the development of ecologically valuable habitat structures such as dead wood, and occasionally, even threatened wood-inhabiting species can be found in urban forests. Yet, systematic studies regarding dead-wood habitat potential in urban forests and the role of urbanization in shaping wood-inhabiting biodiversity have remained scarce. We have investigated how dead-wood availability, forest fragmentation and urbanization contribute to patterns of spruce-associated polypore diversity across rural-urban gradient in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Our results suggest that the patterns of polypore species richness within this landscape are mostly explained by dead-wood availability and forest habitat connectivity, but also that urbanization reduces the overall frequency of polypore fruiting-bodies at the scale of dead-wood units.
INC PAS, Poland
Ecophysiology, cytology and genetics of fungi, Mycology and Algology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Russia
Institut für Ökologie und Landschaft (IÖL), Hochschule Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Germany
Helsinki Univeristy, Finland
Albin Larsson Ekström
Restoration ecology, Wildlife, fish and environmental studies, Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Sweden
Department of Zoology, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Short review: dead wood is not that dead – different tree species holds rich diversity of beetles
Lekoveckaitė Aistė, Podėnienė Virginija
Forests in Lithuania cover over one third of Lithuania’s territory with a wide range of different dead wood types. Natura 2000 territories: Biržai forest botanical reserve, Būda botanical – zoological reserve, Dubrava reserve area, and Punios Šilas strict nature reserve, were chosen for beetles research in the second decay stage of dead wood trunks. Samples were collected by using trunk emergence traps, which covers a section of a log 1 meter lenght. During the period 2019-2021, 42 traps were placed on Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, Tilia cordata, Quercus robur and Betula sp. tree trunks. In total, 4645 specimens belonging to 425 species and 62 families of beetles were collected. The novelty of some beetle species for Lithuania and its rich diversity encourages the conservation of both large diameter trunks and different species of wind-felled trees in the forests ecosystem.
The City University Of New York, USA
EcoForest, MINA, NMBU, Norway
Entomology, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway
Saproxylic Diptera in Norway
In Norway the ecology and distribution of saproxylic Diptera are poorly studied, even though the knowledge of the taxonomy and diversity of several key taxa is high. Therefore, I am currently working on a list of Diptera species associated with dead wood in Norway, with information about ecology and red list categories for each species where this is known. The paper reviews the present state of knowledge saproxylic Diptera occurring in Norway, describing the known diversity, ecology as well as estimates of the true diversity and threats to their existence in Norwegian forests. The aim of the study is to summarize the knowledge to spark the interest of Diptera associated with dead wood and to serve as a basis to develop research projects on the subject.
Ewa Natalia Moroz-Keczyńska
Tourist and Education, Bialowieza National Park, Poland
BATS Research and Training Services, UK
Artdatabanken, SLU, Sweden
Insects, Field Museum of Natural History, United States of America
University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Insect ecology, MINA, NMBU, Norway
Biology, University of Évora, Portugal
Naturalists Club Poland, Poland
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Poland
Zoology, Vilnius University, Lithuania
School of Life and Environmental Science, Deakin Univeristy, Australia
Human impacts on the dead wood fauna of Indo-Pacific Islands; Macrophotography of dead wood fauna
The human colonisation of Indo-Pacific oceanic islands like Hawaii, Tahiti and Mauritius occurred largely within the last 1000 years. The dodo is a well-known example of human impact, but we know much less regarding the consequences for invertebrates. Fortunately, swamps and sinkholes contain sediments that record the changes that have occurred over the period of human impact, and more significantly, provide evidence for what was present before human arrival. On most islands it seems that large part of the dead wood fauna rapidly became extinct with human arrival. Here I will introduce how palaeoecology can help us understand this trajectory, and describe the general pattern of changes in the faunas, focusing on dead wood taxa. An introduction to macrophotography: Using images spanning the taxonomic diversity of invertebrates I will talk about macrophotography of invertebrates found in dead wood habitats in SE. Australia and on Indo-Pacific islands.
Department of Mycology and Plant Resistance, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Ukraine
Colonize a young tree, wait, and fruit when the tree dies. The case of an oyster mushroom Pleurotus calyptratus suggests a pattern that might be common among wood-inhabiting agarics
Oleh Prylutskyi, Iryna Yatsiuk, Anton Savchenko
Pleurotus calyptratus is a wood-inhabiting oyster mushroom associated with Populus tremula and P. alba. We conducted habitat mapping and repeated surveys to understand the substrate requirements and fruiting dynamics of this species. We showed that fruiting is strictly associated with older trees and early decay stages, and not with physical properties of a tree trunk like volume or position. This timespan of substrate suitability lasts for 1–3 y, determining rapid substrate turnover. We also detected DNA of P. calyptratus in living tissues of visually healthy trees, meaning its hidden presence in the host, which enables the fungus to be the pioneer in a fungal succession. Latent development was previously reported for some wood-inhabiting Agaricomycetes. However, those fungi generally have long-living fruit bodies that require sufficient resources and time to grow. Whether the early colonization strategy is equally common in fleshy wood-inhabiting agarics, requires further study.
MEG – Microbial Ecology Group, School Of Natural Science, Bangor University, United Kingdom,
Centro de Ecologia Evolução e Alterações Ambientais, Portugal
Science: Nature Management, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Sanjeev Kumar Sanyal
Mycology, Basic Science, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry Nauni Solan Himachal Pradesh, India
Mycology, Botany University of Tartu, Estonia
Martin Schier Christiansen
Heilmann-Clausen Group, Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate (CMEC), Globe Institute, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
General Ecology, Anatomy and Physiology of Plants, St.Petersburg Forest Technical University, Russia
Natural Resources Institute Finland, Forest Research Institute, Karelian Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Finland, Russia
Restoration Ecology, Wildlife, Fish and Environmental studies, SLU, Sweden
Sustainability Research Institute, University of East London, England
DEEP Group, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, Australia
João Gonçalo Soutinho
Predicting and Managing Ecological Change – ECOCHANGE, Department of Biodiversity, University of Porto, CIBIO – Research Centre in Biodiversity and Genetic Resources, Portugal
Deadwood, large trees and stag-beetles of Portugal
Conservation of deadwood and saproxylic biodiversity has been neglected in Portugal for many years. Forest fires, its preventive management and cultural activities had led this country to be extremely poor regarding the amount of deadwood in its forests. Although we don’t know much about the conservation status of many saproxylic organisms, several endemic species recorded in known ancient forest have not been seen for many decades and are thought to be extinct. Nonetheless, some species seem to be less vulnerable to extinction and recent citizen science initiatives have been increasing the knowledge regarding their distribution but also increasing the awareness of the Portuguese people to the importance of native forests and integrative conservation of deadwood and large trees. Here I would like to present my personal work for the last 6 years regarding the conservation of the European Stag Beetle, active management of deadwood and preservation of microhabitat rich trees.
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Poland
Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway
Dead wood dynamics in old boreal forests – importance for carbon cycling and biodiversity conservation
Boreal forests continue to increase the standing volume of live trees when growing beyond typical rotation age in forest management. The natural mortality of trees in such old forests remains rather stable as a percentage of the standing volume, producing increased annual input of dead wood. During decomposition most of the carbon is recycled to the atmosphere but a significant portion is transformed to an accumulating pool of soil carbon. The combination of standing volume, dead wood and wood-derived soil carbon make old forests an important global sink of atmospheric carbon. From a biodiversity perspective, old forests differ from younger managed forests by having a higher diversity of dead wood qualities and a higher abundance (volumes, number of logs per unit area). Thus, both from climate and a biodiversity perspective, it is worthwhile conserving old boreal forests.
Jan Ten Hoopen
Forest ecology and management, Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Belgium
Cucujus cinnaberinus: A 1000km range expansion from ‘urwaldrelictart’ to a species of former poplar plantations
Arno Thomaes, Els Lommelen, Luc Crévecoeur & Roel Lammerant
Cucujus cinnaberinus was formerly considered an ‘urwaldrelictart’, living under the bark of recently died trees. In the last decades the species expanded its population in Central-Europe and colonised about 1000 km westwards, from Bavaria up to large parts of Belgium. This remarkable range expansion is hard to explain: Is it due to climate change, changed ecological requirements or dispersal ability? Does it no longer require old growth forest or have we improved river valley forests up to a standard of old growth forests? Based on a literature review and detailed monitoring in Flanders (Northern Belgium), we reveal the remarkable range expansion of this species. The large scale restoration of alluvial forest seems to be the main driver. Probably the species has been transported over large areas but it is well capable of quickly colonising vast areas. This is an eye opener of the restoration potential of some species.
Laboratory of Environmental Microbiology, Institute of Microbiology of the CAS, v. v. i., Czech Republic
Bacteria associated with deadwood: from their isolation to metatranscriptomics
Deadwood is a hotspot of microbial diversity and its decomposition contributes to carbon and nitrogen cycling in temperate forests. For our study, a European mixed forest was selected as a site where decomposition of deadwood is an important process in wood turnover. The aim was to describe metabolic potential of dominant bacterial species associated with deadwood. Bacteria in deadwood contributed to the nitrogen (N) cycle and played an important role in N2 fixation. Bacterial utilization of carbon via degradation of recalcitrant polymers was present but less important than fungal degradation. Carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) sets were found to be rich in Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in contrast to less CAZy-equipped Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. The latter taxa relied on mycophagy and were able to perform several N-cycling steps, including N2 fixation. Deadwood is a habitat in which individual bacterial groups show adaptations to specific habitat conditions.
Forest restoration ecology, Wildlife, fish and environmental studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia, USA
Assessing the recovery of southern Appalachian forests with two low-mobility, saproxylic beetles
The southern Appalachian Mountains (USA) host a rich forest biota but were intensively logged during the early 1900s. Most of the region is now second-growth forest, and it is uncertain if biodiversity has fully recovered. To investigate this, we assessed the distribution and old-growth dependency of two low-mobility, saproxylic beetles. We found Megalodacne heros (Erotylidae) to be limited in lower elevations regardless of disturbance history, while Phellopsis obcordata (Zopheridae) was restricted inside or near to old-growth forests. Although trees were smaller in second-growth, we detected no habitat limitation for P. obcordata. This suggests its distribution is shaped by its low dispersal capability and need for temporal continuity of deadwood habitat. As we found here, old-growth acted as a refugia during landscape-wide, anthropogenic disturbances to aid in second-growth recolonization years later. This study highlights the usefulness of flightless saproxylic invertebrates for assessing forest recovery in unfragmented landscapes.
Forest Ecosystems, Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sweden
Forest Health and Biodiversity, Natural resources, Natural Resources Institute Finland, Finland
Forest Ecology and management, Research Institute for Nature and Forests, Belgium
Wood-inhabiting aphyllophoroid fungi of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia: species diversity, ecology, distribution
As a result of field studies in 2018-2021, 252 species of xylobiont aphyllophoroid fungi have been recorded in the North-Eastern Caucasus (within the Republic of Dagestan, Russia), which corresponds to approximately 50% of the total number of basidiomycetous species of this group recorded for the Russian part of the Caucasus. The total species list for Dagestan has increased 2.5-fold compared to the level of species richness (100 species) known at the start of the study. For a number of key protected areas of the Republic of Dagestan (Tlyaratinsky Reserve, Samursky National Park, Upper Gunib Nature Park) the modern species composition of xylobiont aphyllophoroid fungi, including species of aphyllophoroid fungi new to the Caucasus and Russia, was identified. In addition, such rare Eurasian taxa as Auriporia aurulenta, Ceriporia torpida, Kneiffiella abdita, Sistotrema alboluteum and others were found here.
Boddy Lab, O&E, Cardiff University, United Kingdom
Wood decay as a driver for lichen community assembly in a central European montane forest
Additional authors: Claus Bässler (Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, Germany; Nationalpark Bayerischer Wald, Section Research, Germany); Rainer Cezanne (Büro für Vegetationskunde und Lichenologie, Darmstadt, Germany); Marion Eichler (Bürogemeinschaft Angewandte Ökologie, Darmstadt, Germany) Cristóbal Ivanovich (Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany); Annina Kantelinen (Department of Botany, Finnish Museum of Natural History, Finland) Christian Printzen (Department of Botany and Molecular Evolution, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Germany)
To study the effects of natural wood decay on lichen communities we investigated 230 snags of Picea abies, displaying different stages of decomposition. Sampling was performed at two different elevation-levels in the national park “Bayerischer Wald” at the German-Czech border. The site is a mixed deciduous and coniferous montane forest that undergoes natural forest dynamics and therefore harbors large amounts of standing dead wood. Decay stages of the wood, snag sizes, elevation, years since the death of the tree and bark coverage were documented. We recorded more than 3200 specimens comprising more than 144 taxa. The lichen diversity and community assembly patterns were explored through non-metric multidimensional scaling. Our initial findings suggest that the degree of wood degradation is one important factor determining species richness and community composition. Several rare or endangered species are dependent on different stages of decay, highlighting the importance of maintaining a diversity of available substrates.
Anne lene Willemsen
NEF (Norsk entomologisk forening), Norway
Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia
Department of Botany, University of Tartu, Estonia
Conservation Biology Group, Department of Zoology, Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences, Tartu University, Estonia
Certification, Sustainable Timber Tasmania, Australia
Veg.Sci, Saint-Petersburg State University, Russia
Dead wood and forest cover dynamics in intact forest landscapes of North-Eastern Europe under climate changes
Parametrizing disturbance regimes commonly involves disentangling effects of several disturbance factors, such as forest fires, insect outbreaks, and wind and extreme climate conditions. Inventory of natural forest cover prior to the planning of forestry and protection is of critical importance since it helps to obtain preliminary assessment of the scale of natural disturbance events, dead wood amount and its distribution across the landscape in question. To this end, adequate inventory should help identify valuable habitats which may have experienced disturbance regimes which differed from regimes experienced by the majority of the studied landscape. To obtain this information for eastern part of Barents region, we studied disturbance regimes, dead wood amount and their spatio-temporal distribution in primary forests.
Agricultural Entomology Unit, Sustainable Ecosystems & Bioresources Department, Fondazione Edmund Mach, Italy